Terms A-Z

This glossary contains definitions of the terms from the topic areas Education, Science, Research and Innovation, and is regularly updated. The glossary terms are alphabetically ordered.


A Bachelor’s degree is the first qualification offered by institutions of higher education after completion of an undergraduate programme. In Germany, Bachelor’s courses were introduced in connection with the Bologna process. The standard period of study of most Bachelor’s degree courses is six semesters, but can be up to seven or eight semesters (i.e. three to four years). Students can then proceed to a more advanced Master’s degree programme or, in exceptional cases, a doctorate.