Source: Federal Ministry of Education and Research, special evaluation; Federal Statistical Office, special evaluation; Stifterverband Wissenschaftsstatistik, special evaluation
This table also appears in the Federal Report on Research and Innovation as Table 1.

1) Data from surveys of the relevant performing sectors. Until 1990, the former Federal Republic of Germany; as of 1991, all of Germany. Due to revision of the calculation method, the data up to 1991 are only partly comparable with data from later publications.
2) Figures for even years are partly estimated.
3) Companies and institutions for co-operative research; intramural R&D expenditures (OECD concept) of business enterprises; until 1990, including non-apportionable government funding; as of 1992, government R&D funding for business enterprises pursuant to figures of funding institutions -- Federal Government and Länder. Until 2010 the funding source data of the Stifterverband Wissenschaftsstatistik, which have been obtained from R&D-performing reporting units, differ from this, since the performing reporting units are not always able to clearly identify the original funding source.
4) Non-university research institutions (e.g., Max Planck Society, Fraunhofer Society). Government: federal, Länder and municipal (research) institutions; as of 1981, Federal Government institutions; as of 1985, Länder institutions with their R&D shares only. As of 1992, modified survey procedure; in 1995, the reporting scope was expanded; in 2005, modified calculation method. Until 2010, including external expenditure on research and development.
5) The increase of the expenditure on higher education is partly methodologically conditioned by the recalculation of R&D coefficients from 2016 onwards.
6) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) status: July 2022. For 2021, current calculation by the Federal Statistical Office (August 2023) based on GDP data as of August 2023.

- = no figures or magnitude zero.
m = data not available.

Last update: August 28, 2023

This work is licensed under a Data licence Germany attribution non-commercial 1.0.