Source: Federal Ministry of Education and Research, special evaluation

1) Possible deviations from earlier publications due to subsequent changes in the allocation to the classification of economic activities are possible. Possible rounding differences.
2) 2009 to 2011, including investment and redemption fund excluding allocations to the Länder (economic stimulus package - Konjunkturpaket II). As of 2011, including "Energy and climate fund". 2016, including future investments.
3) Including expenditures for contracts in the framework of ministerial and defence-related R&D.
4) Breakdown pursuant to Classification of Economic Activities - 2008 edition (based on NACE 2008 - Nomenclature statistique des activités économiques dans la Communauté européenne).
5) Including research and development in business enterprise institutions.
6) Differences with regard to the figures in table 1.1.8 may be due to rounding.

Last update: November 14, 2023

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