1) Until 1990, western German Länder only.
2) 2006 and 2007: limited comparability because some departments have not been included in the calculation.
3) Until 1990, including extramural R&D expenditure.
4) Definition differs.
5) Until 2001, including EU funding programs.
6) Until 1993, excluding R&D in the social sciences and humanities. As of 1998, data exclude funding by public research foundations. Until 2005, central government R&D was taken into account only.
7) Since 2004, loans for R&D that are returnable are not included, in order to ensure international comparability.
8) Status of EU membership as of February 2020 (excluding the United Kingdom). The results were calculated back to 1991.
9) Some figures are revised, provisional, estimated or only partly comparable with figures from previous years (see original edition of "Main Science and Technology Indicators 2023/2").
10) Nominal expenditure converted into US dollar purchasing power parities.
11) The figures are based on years for that data are available.
12) No data on the population and gross domestic product is yet available for the calculation for 2023.

data not available.

Last update: April 19, 2024

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