Source: Stifterverband Wissenschaftsstatistik, special evaluation

1) Including institutions for cooperative industrial research and experimental development.
2) Employees and turnover of enterprises with internal and/or external R&D expenditure.
3) Classification of economic activities, 2008 edition (based on NACE 2008 - Nomenclature statistique des activités économiques dans la Communauté européenne).

Last update: July 10, 2023

This work is licensed under a Data licence Germany attribution non-commercial 1.0.