Source: Federal Statistical Office, special evaluation; Stifterverband Wissenschaftsstatistik, special evaluation

1) Includes personnel (FTE) which can not be distributed to Länder.
2) Until 1989: former West Germany including Berlin-West.
3) Until 2010: even years estimated. As of 2012: technicians and other personnel estimated in even years.
4) From 2000 to 2010: in even years, distribution to personnel groups is the same as the respective previous year. Possible rounding differences.
5) Government institutions and private non-profit organisations financed primarily by the government.
6) As of 2003: the definition between technicians and other personnel has been modified for methodical reasons. Limited comparability with previous years.
7) Figures for the higher education sector refer to full-time staff of private and state universities (ACTUAL), calculated in accordance with the procedure agreed on by the Standing Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany (KMK), the German Council of Science and Humanities, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Federal Statistical Office.
8) Even years estimated.

m = data not available.

Last update: July 22, 2022

This work is licensed under a Data licence Germany attribution non-commercial 1.0.