Source: Federal Statistical Office, special evaluation; Stifterverband Wissenschaftsstatistik, special evaluation

1) Includes personnel (FTE) which can not be distributed to Länder.
2) Until 1989: former West Germany including Berlin-West.
3) In even-numbered years, the distribution to personnel groups is estimated, among other things, on the basis of the previous year. Rounding differences.
4) Government institutions and private non-profit organisations financed primarily by the government.
5) As of 2003: the definition between technicians and other personnel has been modified for methodical reasons. Limited comparability with previous years.
6) Figures for the higher education sector refer to full-time staff of private and state universities (ACTUAL), calculated in accordance with the procedure agreed on by the Standing Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany (KMK), the German Council of Science and Humanities, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Federal Statistical Office.
7) Estimated in even years on the basis of the previous year.

m = data not available.

Last update: July 12, 2023

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