1) According to the ISCED classification: International Standard Classification for Education 2011. For older data according to ISCED 1997 see archive table 2.1.12. For data on early childhood education (ISCED 2011) see table 2.1.23.
2) From public and private sources of funds including international sources.
3) Year of reference 2012: including undistributed programmes.
4) The year specifications may differ from the years of reference. For a detailed specification see source.
5) Year of reference 2014: vocational programmes in upper secondary education include information from vocational programmes in lower secondary education.
6) Year of reference 2020: upper secondary education includes information from vocational programmes in lower secondary education.
7) Upper secondary education includes data from lower secondary education.
8) As of 2014, primary education includes data from pre-primary (ISCED 02) and lower secondary education.
9) Partially public expenditure only.
10) Year of reference 2014: ISCED 6 to 8 include expenditure on public institutions only.
11) For a precise allocation of which states were included in the calculation of the OECD average in the individual reporting years, see the respective edition of "Education at a Glance".
12) Average of the states of the European Union (for an exact allocation see source). 2012: EU21 average; 2013 to 2015: EU22 average; 2016 to 2017: EU23 average; 2018 to 2019: EU22 average after the United Kingdom left the EU; as of 2020: EU25 average.

a = data not applicable because category does not apply.
m = data not available.
y = data included in other category or column of the table.

Last update: September 18, 2023

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